Monday, December 9, 2019

Morgan Moes Drugstore Analysis free essay sample

The Midwest primary output is manufacturing and agriculture. A decline in either one of these sectors means that the workers driving the Midwest economy have less to spend; meaning that the economic circulation in the region as a whole decreases. This loss of manufacturing is seen in the falling revenues of Morgan Moe. In many ways, the company has dealt with the difficult economic climate well. It has closed underperforming stores, consolidated the workforce, and reduced overhead. However, the laying off of many employees had some consequences. Negative press, internal rumors, and malcontent are spreading through the workforce.Websites like www. Ihatemorganmoe. blogspot. com are developing to further spread the discontent of laid-off workers. â€Å"Mans Search for Meaning† Upon reading this book, Jim Claussen, the Vice President of Human Relations, read a book by the psychologist Vicktor Frankl. Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl[ii] is the biography of a man surviving the German Concentration Camps during World War II. We will write a custom essay sample on Morgan Moes Drugstore Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The book highlights three stages of decline: shock, apathy, and depersonalization followed by a period of recovery portrayed by: depersonalization, deformation, disillusionment/bitterness and finally dispersal.The key point of the book that was taken away is that in surviving a difficult time, one must fine hope in a sense of purpose. Mr. Claussen decided that in order to affect a more positive attitude from the workforce during this difficult time for Morgan Moe, he would institute a series of management programs to help improve communications and provide a better sense of purpose to his employees. The 5 programs Jim Klaussen has implemented 5 programs in each of the Morgan Moe stores. Each program is highlighted by some combination of information sharing and feedback sessions with managers (brainstorming).Instead of assigning stores, Jim wanted store managers to choose which program they think would work best for their stores individual culture. †¢ Program I Program I could be considered the closest analog to a control group. No changes to the traditional operational procedure were made. No store or employee performance information was shared beyond normal, and no brainstorming or manager meetings were scheduled. †¢ Program II Program II is highlighted by the sharing of employee absences and sick leave metrics.The idea here is that these metrics can be directly controlled by the employee’s performance. †¢ Program III Program III tracks sales and replacement rates and then shares this information. As in program II, there are no feedback or brainstorming sessions †¢ Program IV This program provides employees with the same data as Programs II and III but it also allows for a time to sit down with the managers and try to develop new ways to continue to improve. †¢ Program V Program V has the same brainstorming sessions as IV but it does not contain the sharing of information that program IV does.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Handmaids Tale Essay Example For Students

The Handmaids Tale Essay The Handmaids Tale and Nineteen Eighty-Four can be described as dystopian novels as they both explore the theme of invented futuristic nightmare worlds, which are based on current, social, political and economic trends, and are warnings against possible future disasters. The theme of oppression runs constantly throughout both novels. Both these texts explore rule under a totalitarian government, in which only one party has complete rule. The characters in The Handmaids Tale are under the rule of Gilead whilst Nineteen Eighty-four is an oligarchy, governed by a figure of supreme authority known as Big Brother, and members of the inner party. We will write a custom essay on The Handmaids Tale specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In both texts the protagonists are being, and have been, oppressed in many different ways. The most obvious form of oppression and one that persists throughout both novels is the lack of personal freedom. Characters such as Winston Smith from Nineteen Eighty-four are all under the watchful eye of Big Brother. A telescreen is situated in each room which traces every single movement and sound made. Any sound Winston madewould be picked upso long as he remained within the field of visionhe could be seen as well as heard This shows that Winston is constantly being watched and he must always be aware of his actions. Offred in The Handmaids Tale is in a similar position, as she, along with the other characters in the novel, must always be aware of her actions and surroundings, as many acts committed can be interpreted as illegal. As Offred walks down the corridor at night she comprehends that this is entirely illegal and when she has been caught by Nick, she is aware that he too is illegal, here. The constant repetition of illegal makes the reader conscious of Offreds restrictions. Most characters in both novels have had their sense of personal identity stripped away from them. The societies they live in have de-humanised them, so each individual no longer holds distinctive characteristics. Offred, in The Handmaids Tale must learn to forget who she is, thus totally erasing her past. my name is Offred now there is something rather disturbing about this quote as the reader is now aware that Offred, whose real name is never revealed to the reader, has lost her uniqueness (and freedom). It also shows that Offred has conformed to the Gileadean regime as she has now accepted her new name which is composed of the possessive prepositionfirst name of the gentlemen in question from this, it can be seen that Fred was the name of the gentlemen in question and by placing the possessive preposition Of, at the beginning, the name Of/Fred occurs. By replacing Offreds real name with that of a mans, Atwood is illustrating to the reader that Gilead is also an extremely patriarchal society where men are dominant and the handmaids are no longer themselves but the property of others. It is also one of the many ways Gilead uses when attempting to deflate the past and to establish the regime. Orwell also explores the loss of personal identity through the character of Winston who first starts to write a diary at the beginning of the novel. This diary introduces the reader to the kind of society Winston is living in by allowing the reader to understand Winstons thoughts and feelings. As Nineteen Eighty-Four is written in the third person, Orwell uses free indirect discourse by incorporating Winstons thoughts into a third person narrative. This helps the reader to relate to Winston more easily, however one is still not fully able to sympathise with him as the novel is not written in a first person narrative and as a result the reader is not able to wholly share Winstons thoughts and feelings. But the question also remains as to whom Winston is writing his diary? He himself is not certain. Winston, along with the reader, is aware that it is for someone living in a time when men are different from one another from this the reader is made aware of the current lack of personal identity Big Brother has imposed upon its subjects. Although Winston has his own name and has more freedom than Offred, both characters are oppressed as they no longer hold particular characteristics which make them unique. .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa , .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .postImageUrl , .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa , .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa:hover , .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa:visited , .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa:active { border:0!important; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa:active , .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ufc06157c03be58c82cb574aa5ad2f5fa:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte: Chapter 32 EssayAfter exploring The Handmaids Tale one can see that Offred and the other characters in the novel are restricted in every single aspect of their lives. For example, when Offred goes shopping, she acknowledges the fact that, even here, the only time that she is allowed to leave the house, she is restricted. A rat in a maze is free to go anywhere, as long as it stays in the maze The rat is a metaphor representing Offred, while the maze represents Gilead. Although Offred claims that now and again we vary our routes, she must stay inside the barriers. Offred is able to go wherever she wishes, as long as it is within Gileads app roval. The Handmaids Tale Essay Example For Students The Handmaids Tale Essay In this essay I am going to write about whether I feel that the first two chapters of The Handmaids Tale by Margaret Atwood, was successful and effective. To me a successful beginning to a book must make the reader want to continue reading on. In order to do this the first couple of chapters must contain most of the following, the plot, the setting, introduce the main characters and main idea, set the tone, and engages the reader. In the first chapter of The Handmaids Tale we learn about the narrator, the setting and the time when the story takes place. It is set in an old gymnasium where many handmaids including the narrator of the book live. The purpose of these handmaids is to be surrogate mothers for baron couples. The narrator and all the other handmaids clearly crave for a sense of freedom, touch and communication with others. We know this because it is mentioned many times that the handmaids are regulated in their daily activities and cannot talk at night, so they learn how to whisper to one another without attracting attention from the patrol guards. The old gym is like a jail as its surrounded by chain link fences topped with barbed wire. Armed guards specially chosen by the angels patrol the gym at all times. The only time the handmaids were allowed out was when the guards came in and sent them to walk around the football pitch twice daily in pairs. We will write a custom essay on The Handmaids Tale specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now There is an amazing amount of detail to describe the setting of the gym. This is so that it illuminates the condition of the surroundings that the narrator is in. We can also tell that these handmaids are like prisoners and are unhappy with their situation that they would go as far as suicide to escape it.  They removed anything you could tie a rope to.  Another quote from the book relates to suicide.  I know why there is no glass.  The narrator tells us this to show the extent of the handmaids unhappiness. There is no glass, no mirrors because they can use it to harm themselves. The story is set sometime in the future. I think this because the narrator mentions that they were issued with old army blankets the ones that still said U.S on them. The fact that she said still leads me to believe that what we know as the United States is no longer referred to as that. Another scene that makes me believe its set far in to the future is that she talks about looking at old photos of womens fashions. Things that were around before she was born. These are items like mini skirts which were worn in the 1960s and,  One earring, and spiky green-streaked hair.  These styles were around in the 1980s  In the second chapter the scene has changed. She is now living with a Commander and his wife in a house. She describes her room and how it is filled with womens traditional handicrafts. Again she describes the lack of glass and sharp objects in her room. There isnt even any glass for the framed pictures, the windows do not open properly and the glass is shatterproof. There is nothing in the room from which to hang rope from and the door doesnt shut completely. She lives with two aunts who carry around cattle prods, this is quite ironic as the term Aunt is usually used to describe someone who is loving and a relative and someone who a niece or nephew can turn for help. But in this case they are just guards who remind the narrator that she should consider her circumstances to be a privilege not a prison. Another ironic term that is used often is angels these are not angels, as we know them to be. They are to be feared and steered clear of. They are also part of the guarding system. .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff , .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .postImageUrl , .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff , .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff:hover , .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff:visited , .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff:active { border:0!important; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff:active , .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u68c7f68b940de586a4cceee1604650ff:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Who Is To Blame For The Deaths Of Romeo And Juliet EssayWhen the narrator is listening to the aunts conversation she over hears them using the term  I hear where youre coming from I know what you mean.  The narrator refers to this as old peoples use of language, yet for us these phrases are used by young people. This is another clue as to the time that this story is set in.  So in conclusion, the first two chapters although they are short in length, do tell us a lot about the plot, main characters, themes, and setting in great detail. It has defiantly engaged me and has made me want to read on. So I believe that Margaret Atwood has used the first two chapters to prov ide me with a successful and effective beginning.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Rohm and Haas Case Study Essay Example

Rohm and Haas Case Study Essay Example Rohm and Haas Case Study Paper Rohm and Haas Case Study Paper ROHM AND HAAS CASE WRITE-UP Problem Statement Rohm and Haas have a great product with the potential to make millions of dollars; however the end user is not aware of this product or its potential benefits due to their uninspiring promotional strategy, which really has only targeted large formulators and distributors leading to disappointing sales of Kathon MWX. The Kathon MWX has barely reached 6% of their targeted sales volume during its first five months and is nowhere near the potential $20 million market to individual systems. Alternative 1 Maintain Status Quo Pros: Kathon MWX is in the introductory stage of the product life cycle and the individual adoption process may take longer than expected, therefore sales may increase once consumers become aware of the product without additional cost to change marketing efforts. No additional cost, man hours, accounting, or clerical work would be incurred if they maintained the same marketing plan. Cons: The cost of doing nothing may snowball the poor sales and cause a decrease in long term profits. The more time it takes for consumers to become aware of the product, the more time it is giving the competition to react to the market. Market potential for Kathon MWX is estimated at $20 million, therefore allowing competition to be the first to reach consumers. Management may withdraw product from the market if this plan does not work. The current marketing strategy does not focus efforts on bringing awareness or knowledge of the product to the 150,000 individual system plants or the small companies that rely on supply houses and machine tool shops. Alternative 2 Adjust promotional strategy of Kathon MWX using extensive sales promotions along with advertising and personal selling focused on penetrating industrial supply houses and machine tool shops. Pros: By focusing promotions and advertising towards the secondary network instead of the large distributors helps create awareness of the product to the actual users of the product. This creates a pull or demand from consumers as opposed to a push from suppliers. Also, the concentrate biocide market is predicted to be cannibalized by the maintenance biocide market, hence adjusting the promotional strategy more towards the end users can boost sales by expediting this process sooner. Since Kathon MWX is a far superior product and more cost effective to users, creating a buzz or awareness of the product can sway consumers away from the competition and assist in gaining the untapped market. Personal selling and trade shows would allow the retailers and customers to become familiar with the product and ask questions regarding usage and safety since the previous marketing survey revealed consumer apprehension about safety. Cons: Adjusting a promotional strategy and implementing changes can be costly and time consuming. Additional sales force would be needed to help penetrate the smaller markets. The cost of implementing could be hard to predict and management may be reluctant to invest money into a product that is doing poorly. Formulators may resent the change since the product extends the life of the product they sell, which could decrease their sales. Alternative 3 Rerun the full-page advertisements in American Machinist and offer sampling again for an additional 5 months. Pros: Little time or effort would be needed to implement since it has already been done. This could be compared with the last effort to see if this promotional strategy is working. They could use the information gathered to add to their survey. No additional staff would be needed and cost would be minimal compared to other options. Cons: Since it had little response the first time, the odds of new customers reading the magazine are not high and they really will not be raising awareness of the products benefits or reaching the small users of the product. The only readers who received samples had to fill out reader service coupon, which may act as a deterrent. Each ad cost $3,800. Distributors are expected to follow up and generate orders, which takes an element of control away from Rohm and Haas and leaves the â€Å"selling† up to the distributors who have other products to sell. Recommendation My recommendation is for Alternative 2. Adjusting the promotion strategy to target the new â€Å"small users† instead of the industry formulators brings awareness of the product which should be the first step in the introduction phase of the product life cycle. The results of the previous survey showed that the majority of users sourced from small, local supply shops close to their business, therefore this promotional strategy will make Kathon MWX more visible and accessible to wider range of consumers. If Kathon MWX can capture just 15% (each competitor in biocide markets holds 15-20%) of the potential $20 million dollar market, it can increase sales by $3 million, which is outlined in Table A. This will offset the major drawback of this alternative which is the cost to implement a new promotional strategy. Table ASales Potential Potential Market$20 million Rohm and Haas’ Share of Biocide Market15% (low end) Potential Sales$3 million I would implement the plan by first approaching the sales group at Rohm and Haas that is under Specialty Chemicals. This will assist with internal relations since the sales group may feel some resentment towards a new sales team and this will allow for inputs and determine the most effective plan. Sales promotion that focuses on store demonstration with large, easy to read advertisement and free sampling would be most effective, along with trade promotion and making multiple appearances at trade shows. Second, I would hire a sales team to help with the promotional campaign and sales and then distribute target areas by region. All promotions would be backed up by advertising that would specifically target the individual systems to make them aware of the product and its benefits. I would evaluate the effectiveness of the new promotional campaign followed with another survey in five months. This would assist in determining the promotional strategy’s impact on the end user. I would also continue amicable relations with the current customers to ensure service is not impact. In general, the consumer only needs to be aware of a great product that is superior in performance and cost effective to buy it; therefore making them aware is the first step.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

John Henry Newmans Definition of a Gentleman

John Henry Newman's 'Definition of a Gentleman' A leader in the Oxford Movement and a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church, John Henry Newman  (1801-1890) was a prolific writer and one of the most talented rhetoricians in 19th-century Britain. He served as the first rector of the Catholic University of Ireland (now University College Dublin) and was beatified by the Catholic Church in September 2010. In The Idea of a University, originally delivered as a series of lectures in 1852, Newman provides a compelling definition and defense of a liberal arts education, arguing that the primary purpose of a university is to develop the mind, not dispense information. From Discourse VIII of that work comes A Definition of a Gentleman, a superb example of character writing.  Note Cardinal Newmans reliance on parallel structures  in this extended definition in particular his use of paired constructions  and tricolons. A Definition of a Gentleman [I]t is almost a definition of a gentleman to say he is one who never inflicts pain. This description is both refined and, as far as it goes, accurate. He is mainly occupied in merely removing the obstacles which hinder the free and unembarrassed action of those about him, and he concurs with their movements rather than takes the initiative himself. His benefits may be considered as parallel to what are called comforts or conveniences in arrangements of a personal nature: like an easy chair or a good fire, which do their part in dispelling cold and fatigue, though nature provides both means of rest and animal heat without them. The true gentleman in like manner carefully avoids whatever may cause a jar or a jolt in the minds of those with whom he is cast;all clashing of opinion, or collision of feeling, all restraint, or suspicion, or gloom, or resentment; his great concern being to make everyone at their ease and at home. He has his eyes on all his company; he is tender towards the bashful, gentle towards the distant, and merciful towards the absurd; he can recollect to whom he is speaking; he guards against unseasonable allusions, or topics which may irritate; he is seldom prominent in conversation, and never wearisome. He makes light of favours while he does them, and seems to be receiving when he is conferring. He never speaks of himself except when compelled, never defends himself by a mere retort, he has no ears for slander or gossip, is scrupulous in imputing motives to those who interfere with him, and interprets everything for the best. He is never mean or little in his disputes, never takes unfair advantage, never mistakes personalities or sharp sayings for arguments, or insinuates evil which he dare not say out. From a long-sighted prudence, he observes the maxim of the ancient sage, that we should ever conduct ourselves towards our enemy as if he were one day to be our friend. He has too much good sense to be affronted at insults, he is too well employed to remember injuries, and too indolent to bear malice. He is patient, forbearing, and resigned, on philosophical principles; he submits to pain, because it is inevitable, to bereavement, because it is irreparable, and to death, because it is his destiny. If he engages in controversy of any kind, his disciplined intellect preserves him from the blundering discourtesy of better, perhaps, but less educated minds; who, like blunt weapons, tear and hack instead of cutting clean, who mistake the point in argument, waste their strength on trifles, misconceive their adversary, and leave the question more involved than they find it. He may be right or wrong in his opinion, but he is too clear-headed to be unjust; he is as simple as he is forcible, and as brief as he is decisive. Nowhere shall we find greater candour, consideration, indulgence: he throws himself into the minds of his opponents, he accounts for their mistakes. He knows the weakness of human reason as well as its strength, its province and its limits. If he be an unbeliever, he will be too profound and large-minded to ridicule religion or to act against it; he is too wise to be a dogmatist or fanatic in his infidelity. He respects piety and devotion; he even supports institutions as venerable, beautiful, or useful, to which he does not assent; he honours the ministers of religion, and it contents him to decline its mysteries without assailing or denouncing them. He is a friend of religious toleration, and that, not only because his philosophy has taught him to look on all forms of faith with an impartial eye, but also from the gentleness and effeminacy of feeling, which is the attendant on civilization. Not that he may not hold a religion too, in his own way, even when he is not a Christian. In that case, his religion is one of imagination and sentiment; it is the embodiment of those ideas of the sublime, majestic, and beautiful, without which there can be no large philosophy. Sometimes he acknowledges the being of God, sometimes he invests an unknown principle or quality with the attributes of perfection. And this deduction of his reason, or creation of his fancy, he makes the occasion of such excellent thoughts, and the starting-point of so varied and systematic a teaching, that he even seems like a disciple of Christianity itself. From the very accuracy and steadiness of his logical powers, he is able to see what sentiments are consistent in those who hold any religious doctrine at all, and he appears to others to feel and to hold a whole circle of theological truths, which exist in his mind no otherwise than as a number of deductions.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Critical Perspectives on HRM in Britain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Critical Perspectives on HRM in Britain - Essay Example Research shows that when an organisation is able to achieve a cohesive and unified organisational culture, it improves problem-solving capacity within a firm and leads to enhanced organisational performance (Yilmaz and Ergun 2008). Furthermore, a longitudinal study conducted by Kotter and Heskett (1992) discovered that having a cohesive organisational culture was correlated with a 765 percent improvement of business incomes for the investigated organisations occurring between 1977 and the year 1988. With such evidence of organisational improvement and enhanced problem-solving capacity as a result of developing a cohesive organisational culture, it would appear that it is, indeed, desirable for senior managers to seek to change their organisational cultures if it is determined that existing culture in insufficient for enhancing organisational performance. However, change resistance is commonplace in many organisations in which managers become the victims of illogical and irrational employee responses when organisational members are faced with change (Ford, Ford and D’Amelio 2009). Hence, it might not be feasible to seek change of culture as a result of the intensity of psychological retaliation imparted upon management when attempting to elicit cultural change. There appears to be significant evidence that seeking to change organisational culture maintains a variety of benefits for an organisation. O’Donnell (2006) asserts that when an organisation maintains a cohesive culture, culture can facilitate development of innovations that support an organisation’s goals. For many organisations, especially those that operate in saturated competitive markets, the capability of an organisation in achieving many innovative outputs serves as a predictor of competitive advantage and holistic organisational performance. Kalyanaram and Gurumurthy (2008) describe an example of being a first mover in a new market where a firm

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

History of American Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

History of American Economics - Essay Example The US economy has overthrown all other economies since then and is ever-growing with the passage of time. A brief chart is given below for further understanding. Table 1: RAILROAD MILEAGE INCREASE BY GROUPS OF STATES 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 New England 2,507 3,660 4,494 5,982 6,831 Middle States 3,202 6,705 10,964 15,872 21,536 Southern States 2,036 8,838 11,192 14,778 29,209 Western States and Territories 1,276 11,400 24,587 52,589 62,394 Pacific States and Territories 23 1,677 4,080 9,804 TOTAL USA 9,021 30,626 52,914 93,301 129,774 SOURCE: Chauncey M. Depew (ed.), One Hundred Years of American Commerce 1795-1895 p 111 (Source Wikipedia) The independent yeoman farmer continued to exist, particularly in New England and the middle colonies, but most settled land in North America by 1750 was devoted to the cultivation of a cash crop. New England turned its land over to the raising of meat products for export. The middle colonies were the principal producers of grains. By 1700 Philadelphia exported more than 350,000 bushels of wheat and more than 18,000 tons of flour annually. The Southern colonies were, of course, even more closely tied to the cash crop system. South Carolina, aided by British incentives, turned to the production of rice and indigo. North Carolina, although less oriented toward the market economy than South Carolina, was nevertheless one of the principal suppliers of naval stores. Virginia and Maryland steadily increased their economic dependence on tobacco and on the London merchants who purchased that tobacco; and for the most part they ignored those who recommended that they diversify their economie s by turning part of their land over to the cultivation of wheat. Their near-total dependence upon the world tobacco price would ultimately prove disastrous, but for most of the 18th century Virginia and Maryland soil remained productive enough to make a single-crop system reasonably useful. As America evolved from subsistence to commercial agriculture, an influential commercial class increased its power in nearly every colony. Boston was the centre of the merchant elite of New England, who not only dominated economic life but also wielded social and political power as well.. And it is clear that the commercial importance of the colonies was increasing. During the years 1700-10, approximately 265,000 sterling was exported annually to Great Britain from the colonies, with roughly the same amount being imported by the Americans from Great Britain. By the decade 1760-70, that figure had risen to more than 1,000,000 sterling of goods exported annually to Great Britain and 1,760,000 annually imported from Great Britain. (Source Britannica encyclopedia) Situation now days The United States of America holds the honor of world's greatest economic power in terms of gross national product (GNP) and is among the greatest powers in terms of GNP per capita. The nation's wealth is partly a reflection of its rich natural resources. With only 5 percent of the world's population, the United States produces nearly one-fifth of the world's output of coal, copper, and crude petroleum. The agricultural sector produces nearly one-half of the world's corn (maize); nearly one-fifth of its beef, pork, mutton, and lamb; and more than one-tenth of its wheat.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Benchmarking for Performance Evaluation Essay Example for Free

Benchmarking for Performance Evaluation Essay IntroductIon In September 2004, Wendy Wiley, the Northlake Bookstore manager, was considering the implications of a shocking development. For the first time in her seven years as the Bookstore manager, textbook sales for this fall had decreased from the prior fall sales. The sales decrease was approximately $180,000, or 3% of annual textbook sales. Wendy wanted to address this problem before it got worse. She found that this sales decrease was due to two emerging technology problems, possibly of equal magnitude: 1) the students’ increasing use of online textbook vendors, and 2) the professors’ increasing use of online textbook publishers. Wendy reported the bad sales news to her boss, Chuck Irwin, the Vice Chancellor of Finance at Northlake University. After commiserating with her, Chuck told her that he was not surprised by this sales problem and that she should consider how to deal with these emerging technologies in her next performance evaluation report by comparing the performance of the Northlake Bookstore against competitors using benchmarking analysis. This analysis would help Wendy find the strengths and weaknesses of the Bookstore. Additionally, Chuck wanted Wendy to develop a few key related short-term performance goals and related measures that could be used in future performance evaluations. He wanted to discuss the situation at their meeting next week, which was the annual review of the Bookstore’s performance for the prior fiscal year 2004 (July 2003 through June 2004). A benchmarking analysis was required by Chuck for the annual review of all the nonacademic departments under his management. Northlake is a private university, located in a major metropolitan area in the Midwest, with an annual enrollment of 12 ,700 students, mostly undergraduates. Northlake is quite dependent upon student tuition, which typically accounts for 60% of its total revenues. However, the Chancellor was concerned because donations and gifts to the University were down, possibly due to uncertain economic conditions and erratic stock market performance. Prior to becoming the Northlake Bookstore manager, Wendy had spent 15 years in retail sales, most recently as a Wal-Mart sales manager. She was an outgoing, supportive individual who really liked being a retail sales manager and enjoyed working with her employees. She strongly believed in continuous improvement of any sales department that she managed. Despite her extensive retail experience in the for-profit sector, this was her first experience working in an academic environment. Wendy occasionally became frustrated working with faculty due to their late or inaccurate book orders. However, she liked helping students and enjoyed working in an academic environment without all the pressures of a for-prof it business with aggressive sales and earnings targets like Wal-Mart. China Case Competition 2009 To prepare her benchmarking analysis report required for the upcoming annual performance evaluation of the Bookstore, Wendy had collected income statement, product line, and other performance measures for the last three fiscal years. To aid evaluation, she summarized the various Bookstore operations into five product lines: textbooks, supplies and sundries, clothing, software and accessories, and computers. The textbook product line included new texts, used texts, class notes (course packs), and general reference books. The supply and sundry line included school and office supplies, electronics, food, sundries, greeting cards, and miscellaneous campus department sales. The clothing line included all insignia clothing, gifts, and memorabilia. Wendy knew she needed to act fast to thoroughly analyze all the information needed for the Bookstore’s annual benchmarking analysis that Chuck and the Chancellor required. She had a lot of historical information and was wondering how to analyze this financial information for her benchmarking analysis report. BEncHMArKInG Benchmarking is the process of identifying superior performance of other organizations for products, services, and processes, and then attempting to improve necessary areas with the goal of achieving similar excellence. The benchmarking process first became popular in 1989 after Xerox advertised its success with the tool; however, the tool was initially employed by Xerox in 1972. In fact, more than 70% of the Fortune 500 companies—which includes ATT, Ford Motor Company, IBM, and Eastman Kodak—reported using benchmarking regularly. Benchmarking is useful in countless decision-making settings including performance evaluation, health and safety management, and supply chain management. To reach for greater standards of excellence, Ford would likely consider foreign automobile manufacturers that have been well known for high efficiency and quality, such as Toyota, the current world-wide leader in automobile sales. Wendy currently benchmarked the performance of the bookstore against other college bookstores and major booksellers. In performing a benchmarking analysis, it was imperative for Wendy to benchmark processes that were aligned with organizational strategic objectives. Since the Bookstore was a profit center, it was imperative that she compare the profitability of the various product lines with other universities. The Bookstore also had an objective to provide service excellence. Thus, if available, it would be beneficial for Wendy to benchmark customer satisfaction data with other universities. Once processes that were consistent with strategic objectives were identified, it was necessary to collect and analyze internal information vis-Ã ¡-vis external information from competitors. The benchmarking process did not stop once areas of excellence and inferior performance were identified. Rather, it was imperative for Wendy to identify how to sustain the areas of excellence and improve the areas of inferior performance. In determining how to improve poor performance, she needed to understand the reason behind the poor performance. Once that was attained, it would be possible to determine a long-term plan for improvement. A key role of the Bookstore was to supply the Northlake University communitywhich included but was not limited to faculty, students, alumni and parentswith textbooks, supplies, clothing and gifts, computers and software, and much more. The Bookstore’s formal mission statement was as follows: The Northlake Bookstore is an academic resource for the students, faculty, staff, alumni, and guests of the University. The Bookstore serves the University with a business presence dedicated to providing service excellence that meets or exceeds the needs of each customer and University department. The Bookstore played a significant role in enabling parents of freshmen to participate in getting their children ready for the first day of class. Additional temporary staff was hired to ensure there was adequate assistance available for new students and returning students who were purchasing their textbooks. These staff members were readily available and happy to answer any question that new parents or students might have regarding textbooks or the University in general. Also, congruent with the University laptop requirement for all students, the Bookstore sold computers and software. This was a great way for parents to enjoy onestop back-to-school shopping. Additionally, the Bookstore tried to promote the University as a brand name by selling clothing and accessories with the University logo and/or name. Availability of clothing and accessories was also a service provided to students, parents, and alumni who wanted to show their support for the school. Sales of merchandise with the University logo indirectly promoted the University, but the Bookstore did not try to formally create alumni support nor was that a formal goal. This was the function of the University Alumni Advancement (funding) office. As indicated by the mission statement, by the role taken to familiarize new parents and students, and by the sale of merchandise with the University logo, the Bookstore operated in a manner aimed at achieving high customer satisfaction. To measure customer satisfaction the Bookstore conducted an annual customer satisfaction survey and a separate faculty satisfaction survey. Customer suggestion forms were also readily available on the Bookstore website. In her years as the Bookstore manager, Wendy had developed various financial performance measures to help assess the performance of the Bookstore. Over the last few years, she had used these measures as part of her benchmarking analysis. She felt fortunate to have a fairly comprehensive benchmarking database available to her. It was provided annually to all bookstore members free of charge by the National Association of College Stores (NACS). The only requirement was that each bookstore had to contribute its own data to the benchmarking database in order to use it. The NACS database included income statement, product line, and other types of benchmarks. With the looming threat from online textbook vendors, Wendy had started to benchmark Northlake’s textbook prices against the major online textbook vendors. She also tracked mail orders and Web orders from Northlake’s own website (started in 2000). Her task now was how best to use this benchmark information. She believed that her first step was to compare her current financial and operating results with the benchmark data to pinpoint areas in need of improvement. This analysis would likely uncover some areas that needed her attention, which would be useful in identifying areas in need of improvement.